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Traits of a WOW private server

Unser erstes Haus in der neuen Welt!
game server
Image by Albrecht Boucher

When you want to pick a WOW private server, first you have to consider all the perks you will get out of it. A good choice will lead to a wide range of benefits, but you have to take the time to weigh all the options you can turn to before you make up your mind. This is where you will find a few details on how to make the right choice.

World of Warcraft is a very popular game and one of the first things you must focus on is the number of players that use the WOW private server. Since you want to enjoy a game over the web, more competition should be welcome. If you have more players in your world, you will have a lot more action and many more adventures.

There are many other perks you can get out of a WOW private server that will aid you in your quest. Custom content should be among the first things you will get out of it since this is going to guarantee a unique in game experience. Every time you will log on there will be something new to look forward to as you play the game.

The performance of the server is also an important issue when you want to enjoy the experience. If there is too much traffic and the game is slowed significantly, you will no longer feel the thrills, but only the frustration that comes with it. This is why the server you will use has to be among the best when it comes to its performance.

The traits you have read about here will apply to most other games you will find over the web and this is why you have to make sure the RuneScape private server will live up to the same demands. Even if these are the common features you want to find, there are a few others that make this game one of the best online experiences.

The experience you will get as you will roam through the land, the skills you can make the most of and the tasks you will have to complete are different from one RuneScape private server to another. This is why you have to weigh all the options you can make the most of so you can start off on the right foot when you sign up.

If you are looking for a little help when you want to pick your RuneScape private server, you have to find a site that is going to provide all the details you are interested in from the start. This is why you should turn to the one you can visit at gtop100.com. This is where you will learn the traits of every server you want to use and you will also learn the best options you can turn to based on the votes cast from other players that already used them.

A WOW private server can provide a great deal of fun, but you have to know it has the traits you are looking for. There are a number of sources you can use for this, but if you want to pick the RuneScape private server that will meet your demands, you have to use the help provided by the site named before for the details you are interested in.
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WOW private server – your best guide for gaming

New Alvega server home 01
game server
Image by curson
Wandering around the newly created 1.3 Minecraft world for the server I play on (the Alvega Server) with friends. I was looking for a cool place to settle down… I think I couldn’t have asked for anything better! WOW.

Private gaming servers are those which belong to a private agency rather than the company owning a particular game. These emulate or re-create the game playing environment for followers of games like World of Warfare. For them WOW private server is like the battle field they always dream of. Another very popular game played by thousands of people all over the world is MU Online and for this too MU Online private server helps fans play their favorite game for free. Dedicated private servers offer the perfect game-playing experience for you where new players get helpful tips and benefits from people who are knowledgeable about the game.

Playing on WOW private server is like getting a level playing field with competitors in every stage of the game. Operators of private servers try to match players with similar skill set so that you get an enjoyable experience every time you play World of Warfare. They also include certain new features or rules that are different from the original game and this keeps the interest of players alive. MU Online private server gives round the clock uptime to gamers for better performance. You can continue to play your favorite season even after it is removed from official website. You can make your characters join MU world or maps whenever you wish.

A major benefit of playing your best games on private servers is that the disturbance from bugs is taken care of by operators. Original servers tend to get overloaded with hundreds of players logging in at the same time but WOW private server has only few serious players so you get quality gaming time. You can interact with a community of likeminded gamers in blogs and social media sites which can be accessed from these gaming sites. MU Online private server is part of a wide network of game servers which brings together players from diverse backgrounds and you get valuable feedback and tips from them about the game.

Private game servers are pre-programmed to run software dedicated to World of Warfare or MU Online. So, the results you achieve while playing is unparalleled. WOW private server is often operated by teams of players who have obtained high rank in the game. Their suggestions and experience helps you to cross each level fast and achieve top rank in nominal time. MU Online private server runs several contests for players so, you learn more about the game by taking part in these mini contests. Players who achieve top rank get their name featured on the site which acts as a great impetus and gives you a sense of pride.

WOW private server offers frees service to players as the housing and maintenance cost of these small servers are less compared to the large official servers of the game. Certain rules are laid down for each and every player to follow which are clearly featured in the website. For MU Online private server the stats required for beginners are marked out so that you get a clear advantage when you start playing. You can avail live online support for playing the game round the clock. Private game servers bring a wonderful gaming encounter as you play your desired game.

You can play on WOW private server from any location with ease. Learn the finer points to play successfully with MU Online private server.
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The Reasons COD 4 Clanservers Are So Busy

Desert Moon on the Alvega Server
game server
Image by curson
Moon rising over the desert at Spawn on the Alvega server. I’ve been working on the spawn "village" area lately, and this seemed to capture the mood.

Despite the fact that there are multiple newer versions of the game available, the COD4 server, to this day, is still going strong. Actively playing the online version and keeping it alive are people who have purchased special Call of Duty 4 hosting options, or who are using an existing COD4 server, are tons of people who still love this game. The extended popularity of the Call of 4 servers is likely causing you to wonder why.

Since its inceptions, this series has been incredibly popular. This is due to the complexity and quality of not only the game play mode, but the graphics and realism as well. This version, for the online function, is still perhaps the best that has been released as of yet. Many people loved the game play on the COD 4 server that they have been actively playing it since. Part of what makes Call of Duty so fun to play online is that it is a first person shooter than you can play in a fast paced, interactive environment. No other game is quite the same, or offers the same types of game play as to the COD4 servers, and the offline version just cannot compare. This is why, again and again, people come back to this game. No matter that competing games and newer versions of this game have been released, this is still the ultimate first person shooter for many.

The game controls are fairly even to learn, even though the game itself is complex, adding to its innovation. You can choose between connection via the internet or using the local area network (LAN) to connect to certain individuals directly. You can choose whether to help or complete against each other in a world that is roamed by many baddies from zombies to human-like, but not quite characters that are after you.

Groups of individuals or gaming groups have purchased dedicated server space to create their own COD4 server set up, which is just another great things about Call of Duty 4. By doing this, these servers can be open to the public, or they can be kept private. For participation on the game server, the gaming group or server owner can create customized rules for game play. They can make the rules as hard or easy as they want, creating a completely unique version of the game for all to enjoy.

None of the versions, even with the continued progress made in the Call of Duty series, seem to be able to match that all around “coolness” or level of fun, and ease of learning that made Call of Duty 4 so special. To many, out of the entire COD series, this is the best version. Though dated by modern ways of thinking about things, it has been able to remain an incredibly popular game for all the reasons stated above. The game that has the perfect combination of fun, functionality, and difficulty will have a players heart for the long haul. This has been the case for Call of Duty 4.

Need Call of Duty 4 servers? Try INX-Gaming. INX specialise in COD 4 server hosting.

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The Growth and Long run Prospects of E-Commerce

The Growth and Long run Prospects of E-Commerce

Inside sixties, the armed forces, good sized online businesses and banking establishments created an electronic will mean to exchange knowledge around very long distances. This was generally known as digital facts interchange. Afterwards with the 1970s, a more state-of-the-art protocol described as ASC X12 was made to trade organization info electronically.

Continue reading » The Growth and Long run Prospects of E-Commerce

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Minecraft Server Redefining the Concept of Healthy Entertainment

Bioshock2 017 Rapture arrival
game server
Image by JP Freethinker
Screenshots taken before the crash
The problem with Bioshock 2 comes right Game For Windows Live, which closed its servers. However, I play a solo game offline. In fact, if I start a new game, I can play for hours and even make the whole game.! But if I save, I quit the game and then try to start a save, the game crashes immediately. I tried to reinstall GFWL but can not connect because the server is closed. Microsoft thank you deprive me of access to a game I just bought and thank you to Steam, having sold it to me, knowingly.

Minecraft is a popular game in the Internet. The concept behind playing this is inadvertently simple. Players have to steer through an ever-expanding domain of cubes and collect blocks made of different materials. Along with this collection process, players can also use the crafting tools that are provided along with the game, to build a variety of objects. The list of these objects is truly contrasting, as it includes simple structures like, huts to complex logic gates and switching systems that illuminate vast cities. Beauty of the game lies here in the fact that it can facilitate designing of just about anything!
Tools that the game provides to the players include, spade and shovel, pickaxes, etc. In order to facilitate building construction, it equips the players with bricks, doors, etc. Even battle gears like swords, bows and arrows, armors, etc. can be crafted out in the game of Minecraft. There is a 3/3 grid that comes along with the game. Players need to place the ingredients on the grid and craft out just about anything according to their choice and requirement. These items are helpful in defending the ever-evolving houses and fortresses that come up as the game proceeds. However, the items – in course of time – will gradually become weak and ultimately break on being overused. Therefore, it is crucial for a player to have an ample collection of the raw materials to play the game successfully. Considering the game’s such impressive features, it is no wonder that minecraft server list has an overwhelming appeal to million’s of game addicts across the world.
The game provides the thrill of living through inhospitable terrain. A player not only has to survive in such adverse conditions, but has to stay in an excellent condition as well. The game of Minecraft has been designed so impressively, it provides an excellent feeling of accomplishment to the players. Technology has been elevated to such impressive level that the games like Minecraft have come into existence. Thanks to online gaming, new targets of accomplishment are being defined by online gamers, almost in never ending sequence. Minecraft server has indeed superb contribution in streamlining the online gaming community. Online gaming is the latest trend across the cyber world. Since the beginning of the new millennium, CD ROMS and DVD disks have taken prominence in the society. This has proved extremely helpful in ideating on online games. Apart from minecraft server list, there are other facilities like Sony Play Station and Microsoft’s X-BOX. Both these gadgets mentioned above support networking facilities.
In other words, a number of individuals spanned across the world, can play the games with each other. The speed of the network is most vital in playing online games. Minecraft server has facilitated unprecedented popularity of the online games. Innovative games that the online gaming precinct offers are most ideal recourse, to healthy entertainment. Addicts for online games are increasing in leaps and bounds. Ever evolving technology certainly has more intriguing things in store for future. However, considering all the impressive features and unadulterated entertainment that the contemporary generation of online games provides, it will not be an overestimation to say, these games are here to stay!

Stephane Mallarme is the owner of the minecraft server. Minecraft Servers are gaming server that are hugely popular throughout the world. He has written many journals on this that are well liked by the people.
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Perfect World private server leads you to a common community of gamers

Witching Night at Warhammer
game server
Image by Alt-x
Kuura 17lvl swordmaster at Burlok RP server (EU).

Online multi player games are no longer considered as kids’ playpen as adults are equally serious about playing such games. Just like children they get hooked on to these computer games like Perfect World and World of Warfare and will take help from any quarter to improve their ranking and level in the game. Playing online games and facing players from different corners of the world is quite challenging. Some of your opponents may be experts in the game and may enjoy top ranking. WOW private server is one option for you to gain a better ranking easily. Perfect World private server is one of the longest serving and highly rated professional gaming servers.

Popularity of private servers lies in the fact that you get the real gaming experience before embarking on the real world of online gaming. WOW private server allows you to experience the real thing before subscribing, then play and win against masters of the game. Here you get a free run of games like Perfect World also. Perfect World private server offers a unique experience like joining the game at the highest level, using of customized items in the game or encountering special in-game events. Sometimes these may differ slightly from original version of the game but diehard fans are happy with the gaming experience.

Sometimes you enjoy playing a particular game like World of Warfare but you may face difficulties in accessing the official server. During those times WOW private server acts like a savior keeping you in touch with your favorite game. Sometimes online games may be removed from official servers by creators but you can continue to enjoy playing with your friends in servers like Perfect World private server. Often newer versions of the game are launched which may be difficult for you so, you can continue to score and win by playing on private servers. These servers provide you with complete satisfaction of playing the real game but with nominal variations.

Private servers dedicated to each popular game have some distinguishing features which make them even more attractive to the avid players. WOW private server highlights a particular feature of the game and brings together thousands of players on the same platform each equally competent. Rates of earning treasures or jewels in some games are sometimes increased or decreased by private servers or emulators. The names of characters and playing fields are associated closely with the names of these dedicated private servers. There is Perfect World private server which changes models of the game to a certain limit to keep interest level undisturbed.

Websites related to Perfect World private server list all the various options available to the players by highlighting the variations each game presents for the players. These are also rated by other players and you get instant review and feedback by going through social network platforms and blogs. Some WOW private server may have instability issues or virus problems unlike original servers and comments of fellow players will help you to identify these and steer clear of them. Freedom offered by private servers is much more than shared servers and you get unlimited free access to your favorite game without any hindrance.

Your search for the best Perfect World private server has to be taken up after research and great care. You will get appreciative performance from WOW private server when you play regularly using their services.

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No Download Casino Game

monopoly-e-commerce
game server
Image by danielbroche
Qui veut jouer au e-commerçant ?
Let’s play e-commerce ?

Je suis preneur pour les suggestions de cartes de la pioche Chance et Web2.0

(http://danielbroche.typepad.com/daniel_broche/2008/02/e-commerce-qui.html)

EDIT (08-2009): New dynamic version here
www.danielbroche.com/daniel_broche/2009/08/ecommerce-2009…

When it comes to downloading a casino game most players are reluctant to do so. If you are very particular and careful about you computers and you don’t prefer to download casino data then you should stick to a no download casino game. In addition to this, if you are an online gaming fan and are restricted to online forms of leisure the online gaming industry offers just the right environment and ease according to you requirement. With the no download casino game option you can access you favorite games with no tension to download.

Computer safety in accordance to viruses is a major concern of players nowadays but with a no download casino game; this risk is minimized to a great extent. For this reason such players should play a no download casino game, also referred to as an instant casino game. Some of the finest online casinos offer no download casino game versions of their games or simply just a no download game. The no download casino game technology as opposed to the download casino is based on HTML, Java or Flash.

Keeps your computer safe from junk:

As opposed to a download casino format, in a no download casino game you do not have to download or install any files to your computer. In this you are only downloading temporary internet files which can be easily removed to clean your computer completely or save space on your hard drive. Apart from this you can play a number of different games without reducing your hard drive space. On the other hand, to play effectively a no download casino game requires a minimum amount of internet communication between your browser and the game server, which consumes more bandwidth while you play.

Saves time and provides instant play:

If you are addicted to online gaming and you have a busy schedule then it would be wise to opt for the no download casino game. With a no download casino game you simply hit the play button and in a matter of seconds, the game loads in the browser and you are ready to place the bets on some exciting new games. Therefore you save up time through flash game and with a no download casino game you can play more games and even plat at tow or more casinos simultaneously.

So if you want your casino playing to become easy for you then you should reconsider and go for a no download casino game. It is a better choice and provides the fastest and most convenient play of casino games.

For more information please visit no download casino game
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Understanding the functions of wow private server and perfect world private server

Kuura and sword
game server
Image by Alt-x
Kuura 17lvl swordmaster at Burlok RP server (EU).

There are no boundaries in the virtual world. You may be located in any part of the world but that doesn’t determine what online game you may play. You may want to play the American designed World of Warcraft or Perfect World, which is based in Chinese mythology. So, you better be prepared to play hard and win. Take the help of a WOW private server or Perfect World private server – here to make your win an easy process.

Why take the help of a private server provider?
A WOW private server or Perfect World private server will not only reduce the time lag but also level the rates. It will also help you in receiving regular updates and event information. Both the games have difficult levels to be crossed to finally get to the place where you can hope to win. So, you will need all the help you can gather, in this case the services of a private server provider. There is a team of dedicated staff ready to help you anytime you need them. These private servers also come with active PvP and PvE which is of course an added advantage.

Understanding the games
Using private servers is fine but you need to understand the basics of the game to do well in it. Once you have been able to grasp the concept well you will be able to make full use of the benefits that come with additional tools like a private server. Both the World of Warcraft and Perfect World are Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game or MMORPG. While the WoW is set in the fantasy Warcraft universe, PW is set in the Chinese mythological world of Pangu. WoW is set within Azeroth, the name given to the Warcraft world and continues from Warcraft III The Frozen Throne.

As of November 2014, WoW had more than 10 million subscribers and is the only such game to have so many subscribers. A WOW private server will leverage your position when you are entering the game as one of the characters, fighting the monsters, communicating with other players as well as non player characters, or exploring the virtual landscape of the game. A private server provider will allow you to stay advanced in the game with the help of custom and specific instances which will increase the chances of your win.

Similarly, a Perfect World private server will show you ways to get through with the game and move ahead crossing the various levels of the game. Enhancing the opportunities and improving the gameplay are the main purposes of using a private server. Perfect World is comparatively younger than the WoW and also easier in level of difficulty. However, players always look for ways to find easier ways to get on with the game.

Though a WOW private server or Perfect World private server will give you the leverage that you need in order to reach a winning position, you need a complete understanding of the game as well. So, a little bit of research is required on both the game and the usefulness of a private server to be able to enjoy the benefits this technology brings.

Understanding a WOW private server and Perfect World private server can help the players in using the benefits of private servers in a better manner.

Slides: http://www.slideshare.net/xieccy/game-server-development-in-nodejs-in-jsconf-eu
Node.js is really suitable for realtime network application, and game server is a typical one. However, game server technology is not as open as other technology, there is almost no open source framework and standard about it. Pomelo framework is a fast, scalable, distributed game server framework for node.js, which we open sourced 6 months ago and gained a lot of attention. We believe it’s going to change the whole industry of network game. This topic is about the design of pomelo framework(abstract, scalability, performance etc.), and how to develop game server with it.

Source: http://2013.jsconf.eu/speakers/charlie-crane-game-server-development-in-nodejs.html

License: For reuse of this video under a more permissive license please get in touch with us. The speakers retain the copyright for their performances.

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The Benefits of Playing An Online Space Shooter Game

Gigabit Switches
game server
Image by Riebart
Make excellent pillows.

Playing video games is not always an affordable pastime to begin unless you choose to play games on the Internet, such as an online space shooter game. Before you ever get started playing video games you usually have to spend a large amount of money. Additionally, each and every game you wish to play requires an additional purchase that is not as large but not insignificant. If you are on a tight budget these types of video games are not really the best option for you but online computer games may be more ideal.

If you compare console-based games to those that are hosted on the Internet, you will actually notice that the games based online will provide many more advantages. Affordability is the major benefit that is often associated with games that are based on the Internet. Most online games are created in such a way that you get to decide how much money, if any at all, you will spend to play the game.

The way this spend what you want gaming platform functions is that the game itself is free to play for everyone who wishes to play it. Nevertheless, the game will supply you with small temptations for spending money on items that can be gained to make playing the game easier or even more exciting. While games that are designed in this manner are great for people who do not have a large gaming budget, they can also be financially dangerous if you are not careful with how you spend your money.

An additional advantage of playing an online game rather than one on a console is that game data gets stored on a server that is based online rather than on a console game memory storage device. Console games are a challenge to transport so you are generally limited to playing those at your house or at a location that has a console. However, you gain more freedom when you play an Internet game since your data is saved to an online server.

As long as you are at a place that can access the Internet your online game information can be obtained from any computer that you wish to use. Signing up for an online space shooter game account only demands you to register with a password and username but you often do not have to download any type of software package. This way, you simply log in to the game server from any computer with Internet access and game play can be restarted.

There is no need to search any further as the details you seek can be found at online space shooter and remember to also check online space shooting.

Ever dreamed of what you could do with a ,000 computer? Turns out the answer is “a lot”.

In our case, we created 7 discrete gaming systems capable of running concurrently and completely independently of each other – all running in a single tower.

All the hardware in this video was provided by the respective manufacturers, but Kingston is the one who stepped up and footed the bill for us to spend the MASSIVE amount of time it took to bring this project to life.

HUGE props to them: http://www.kingston.com/en/

Parts List and Discussion: http://linustechtips.com/main/topic/519293-7-gamers-1-cpu-ultimate-virtualized-gaming-build-log/

Support us: http://linustechtips.com/main/topic/75969-support-linus-tech-tips-our-affiliates-and-sponsors/

Join our community forum: http://bit.ly/ZkLvE7

https://twitter.com/linustech
http://www.facebook.com/LinusTech

Intro Screen Music Credit:
Title: Laszlo – Supernova
Video Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PKfxmFU3lWY
iTunes Download Link: https://itunes.apple.com/us/album/supernova/id936805712
Artist Link: https://soundcloud.com/laszlomusic

Outro Screen Music Credit: Approaching Nirvana – Sugar High http://www.youtube.com/approachingnirvana

Sound effects provided by http://www.freesfx.co.uk/sfx/

Other Music Credits:

Title: I.Y.F.F.E. & Auratic & Au5 – Sweet
iTunes Download Link: https://itunes.apple.com/us/album/monstercat-best-electro-vol./id669263551
Listen on Spotify: http://open.spotify.com/album/5VS5Bt5DMB2GNnMQAXkPGb

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Multiplayer MC Server list offer handiness to handle network issue

A Bitcoin You Can Flip
game server
Image by jurvetson
My son has become fascinated with bitcoins, and so I had to get him a tangible one for Xmas (thanks Sim1!). The public key is imprinted visibly on the tamper-evident holographic film, and the private key lies underneath.

I too was fascinated by digital cash back in college, and more specifically by the asymmetric mathematical transforms underlying public-key crypto and digital blind signatures.

I remembered a technical paper I wrote, but could not find it. A desktop search revealed an essay that I completely forgot, something that I had recovered from my archives of floppy discs (while I still could).

It is an article I wrote for the school newspaper in 1994. Ironically, Microsoft Word could not open this ancient Microsoft Word file format, but the free text editors could.

What a fun time capsule, below, with some choice naivetés…

I am trying to reconstruct what I was thinking, and wondering if it makes any sense. I think I was arguing that a bulletproof framework for digital cash (and what better testing ground) could be used to secure a digital container for executable code on a rental basis. So the expression of an idea — the specific code, or runtime service — is locked in a secure container. The idea would be to prevent copying instead of punishing after the fact. Micro-currency and micro-code seem like similar exercises in regulating the single use of an issued number.

Now that the Bitcoin experiment is underway, do you know of anyone writing about it as an alternative framework for intellectual property?

IP and Digital Cash
@NORMAL:
Digital Cash and the “Intellectual Property” Oxymoron
By Steve Jurvetson

Many of us will soon be working in the information services or technology industries which are currently tangled in a bramble patch of intellectual property law. As the law struggles to find coherency and an internally-consistent logic for intellectual property (IP) protection, digital encryption technologies may provide a better solution — from the perspective of reducing litigation, exploiting the inherent benefits of an information-based business model, and preserving a free economy of ideas.
Bullet-proof digital cash technology, which is now emerging, can provide a protected “cryptographic container” for intellectual expressions, thereby preserving traditional notions of intellectual property that protect specific instantiations of an idea rather than the idea itself. For example, it seems reasonable that Intuit should be able to protect against the widespread duplication of their Quicken software (the expression of an idea), but they should not be able to patent the underlying idea of single-entry bookkeeping. There are strong economic incentives for digital cash to develop and for those techniques to be adapted for IP protection — to create a protected container or expression of an idea. The rapid march of information technology has strained the evolution of IP law, but rather than patching the law, information technology itself may provide a more coherent solution.

Information Wants To Be Free
Currently, IP law is enigmatic because it is expanding to a domain for which it was not initially intended. In developing the U.S. Constitution, Thomas Jefferson argued that ideas should freely transverse the globe, and that ideas were fundamentally different from material goods. He concluded that “Inventions then cannot, in nature, be a subject of property.” The issues surrounding IP come into sharp focus as we shift to being more of an information-based economy.
The use of e-mail and local TV footage helps disseminate information around the globe and can be a force for democracy — as seen in the TV footage from Chechen, the use of modems in Prague during the Velvet Revolution, and the e-mail and TV from Tianammen Square. Even Gorbachev used a video camera to show what was happening after he was kidnapped. What appears to be an inherent force for democracy runs into problems when it becomes the subject of property.
As higher-level programming languages become more like natural languages, it will become increasingly difficult to distinguish the idea from the code. Language precedes thought, as Jean-Louis Gassée is fond of saying, and our language is the framework for the formulation and expression of our ideas. Restricting software will increasingly be indistinguishable from restricting freedom of speech.
An economy of ideas and human attention depends on the continuous and free exchange of ideas. Because of the associative nature of memory processes, no idea is detached from others. This begs the question, is intellectual property an oxymoron?

Intellectual Property Law is a Patch
John Perry Barlow, former Grateful Dead lyricist and co-founder (with Mitch Kapor) of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, argues that “Intellectual property law cannot be patched, retrofitted or expanded to contain digitized expression… Faith in law will not be an effective strategy for high-tech companies. Law adapts by continuous increments and at a pace second only to geology. Technology advances in lunging jerks. Real-world conditions will continue to change at a blinding pace, and the law will lag further behind, more profoundly confused. This mismatch may prove impossible to overcome.”
From its origins in the Industrial Revolution where the invention of tools took on a new importance, patent and copyright law has protected the physical conveyance of an idea, and not the idea itself. The physical expression is like a container for an idea. But with the emerging information superhighway, the “container” is becoming more ethereal, and it is disappearing altogether. Whether it’s e-mail today, or the future goods of the Information Age, the “expressions” of ideas will be voltage conditions darting around the net, very much like thoughts. The fleeting copy of an image in RAM is not very different that the fleeting image on the retina.
The digitization of all forms of information — from books to songs to images to multimedia — detaches information from the physical plane where IP law has always found definition and precedent. Patents cannot be granted for abstract ideas or algorithms, yet courts have recently upheld the patentability of software as long as it is operating a physical machine or causing a physical result. Copyright law is even more of a patch. The U.S. Copyright Act of 1976 requires that works be fixed in a durable medium, and where an idea and its expression are inseparable, the merger doctrine dictates that the expression cannot be copyrighted. E-mail is not currently copyrightable because it is not a reduction to tangible form. So of course, there is a proposal to amend these copyright provisions. In recent rulings, Lotus won its case that Borland’s Quattro Pro spreadsheet copied elements of Lotus 123’s look and feel, yet Apple lost a similar case versus Microsoft and HP. As Professor Bagley points out in her new text, “It is difficult to reconcile under the total concept and feel test the results in the Apple and Lotus cases.” Given the inconsistencies and economic significance of these issues, it is no surprise that swarms of lawyers are studying to practice in the IP arena.
Back in the early days of Microsoft, Bill Gates wrote an inflammatory “Open Letter to Hobbyists” in which he alleged that “most of you steal your software … and should be kicked out of any club meeting you show up at.” He presented the economic argument that piracy prevents proper profit streams and “prevents good software from being written.” Now we have Windows.
But seriously, if we continue to believe that the value of information is based on scarcity, as it is with physical objects, we will continue to patch laws that are contrary to the nature of information, which in many cases increases in value with distribution. Small, fast moving companies (like Netscape and Id) protect their ideas by getting to the marketplace quicker than their larger competitors who base their protection on fear and litigation.
The patent office is woefully understaffed and unable to judge the nuances of software. Comptons was initially granted a patent that covered virtually all multimedia technology. When they tried to collect royalties, Microsoft pushed the Patent Office to overturn the patent. In 1992, Software Advertising Corp received a patent for “displaying and integrating commercial advertisements with computer software.” That’s like patenting the concept of a radio commercial. In 1993, a DEC engineer received a patent on just two lines of machine code commonly used in object-oriented programming. CompuServe announced this month that they plan to collect royalties on the widely used GIF file format for images.
The Patent Office has issued well over 12,000 software patents, and a programmer can unknowingly be in violation of any them. Microsoft had to pay 0MM to STAC in February 1994 for violating their patent on data compression. The penalties can be costly, but so can a patent search. Many of the software patents don’t have the words “computer,” “software,” “program,” or “algorithm” in their abstracts. “Software patents turn every decision you make while writing a program into a legal risk,” says Richard Stallman, founder of the League for Programming Freedom. “They make writing a large program like crossing a minefield. Each step has a small chance of stepping on a patent and blowing you up.” The very notion of seventeen years of patent protection in the fast moving software industry seems absurd. MS-DOS did not exist seventeen years ago.
IP law faces the additional wrinkle of jurisdictional issues. Where has an Internet crime taken place? In the country or state in which the computer server resides? Many nations do not have the same intellectual property laws as the U.S. Even within the U.S., the law can be tough to enforce; for example, a group of music publishers sued CompuServe for the digital distribution of copyrighted music. A complication is that CompuServe has no knowledge of the activity since it occurs in the flood of bits transferring between its subscribers
The tension seen in making digital copies revolves around the issue of property. But unlike the theft of material goods, copying does not deprive the owner of their possessions. With digital piracy, it is less a clear ethical issue of theft, and more an abstract notion that you are undermining the business model of an artist or software developer. The distinction between ethics and laws often revolves around their enforceability. Before copy machines, it was hard to make a book, and so it was obvious and visible if someone was copying your work. In the digital age, copying is lightning fast and difficult to detect. Given ethical ambiguity, convenience, and anonymity, it is no wonder we see a cultural shift with regard to digital ethics.

Piracy, Plagiarism and Pilfering
We copy music. We are seldom diligent with our footnotes. We wonder where we’ve seen Strat-man’s PIE and the four slices before. We forward e-mail that may contain text from a copyrighted news publication. The SCBA estimates that 51% of satellite dishes have illegal descramblers. John Perry Barlow estimates that 90% of personal hard drives have some pirated software on them.
Or as last month’s Red Herring editorial points out, “this atmosphere of electronic piracy seems to have in turn spawned a freer attitude than ever toward good old-fashioned plagiarism.” Articles from major publications and WSJ columns appear and circulate widely on the Internet. Computer Pictures magazine replicated a complete article on multimedia databases from New Media magazine, and then publicly apologized.
Music and voice samples are an increasingly common art form, from 2 Live Crew to Negativland to local bands like Voice Farm and Consolidated. Peter Gabriel embraces the shift to repositioned content; “Traditionally, the artist has been the final arbiter of his work. He delivered it and it stood on its own. In the interactive world, artists will also be the suppliers of information and collage material, which people can either accept as is, or manipulate to create their own art. It’s part of the shift from skill-based work to decision-making and editing work.”
But many traditionalists resist the change. Museums are hesitant to embrace digital art because it is impossible to distinguish the original from a copy; according to a curator at the New Museum of Contemporary Art, “The art world is scared to death of this stuff.” The Digital Audio Tape debate also illustrated the paranoia; the music industry first insisted that these DAT recorders had to purposely introduce static into the digital copies they made, and then they settled for an embedded code that limited the number of successive copies that could be made from the a master source.
For a healthier reaction, look at the phenomenally successful business models of Mosaic/Netscape and Id Software, the twisted creator of Doom. Just as McAfee built a business on shareware, Netscape and Id encourage widespread free distribution of their product. But once you want support from Netscape, or the higher levels of the Doom game, then you have to pay. For industries with strong demand-side economies of scale, such as Netscape web browsers or Safe-TCL intelligent agents, the creators have exploited the economies of information distribution. Software products are especially susceptible to increasing returns with scale, as are networking products and most of the information technology industries.
Yet, the Software Publishers Association reports that 1993 worldwide losses to piracy of business application software totaled .45 billion. They also estimated that 89% of software units in Korea were counterfeit. And China has 29 factories, some state-owned, that press 75 million pirated CDs per year, largely for export. GATT will impose the U.S. notions of intellectual property on a world that sees the issue very differently.
Clearly there are strong economic incentives to protect intellectual property, and reasonable arguments can be made for software patents and digital copyright, but the complexities of legal enforcement will be outrun and potentially obviated by the relatively rapid developments of another technology, digital cash and cryptography.

Digital Cash and the IP Lock
Digital cash is in some ways an extreme example of digital “property” — since it cannot be copied, it is possessed by one entity at a time, and it is static and non-perishable. If the techniques for protecting against pilferage and piracy work in the domain of cash, then they can be used to “protect” other properties by being embedded in them. If I wanted to copy-protect an “original” work of digital art, digital cash techniques be used as the “container” to protect intellectual property in the old style. A bullet-proof digital cash scheme would inevitably be adapted by those who stand to gain from the current system. Such as Bill Gates.
Several companies are developing technologies for electronic commerce. On January 12, several High-Tech Club members attended the Cybermania conference on electronic commerce with the CEOs of Intuit, CyberCash, Enter TV and The Lightspan Partnership. According to Scott Cook, CEO of Intuit, the motivations for digital cash are anonymity and efficient small-transaction Internet commerce. Anonymity preserves our privacy in the age of increasingly intrusive “database marketing” based on credit card purchase patterns and other personal information. Of course, it also has tax-evasion implications. For Internet commerce, cash is more efficient and easier to use than a credit card for small transactions.
“A lot of people will spend nickels on the Internet,” says Dan Lynch of CyberCash. Banks will soon exchange your current cash for cyber-tokens, or a “bag of bits” which you can spend freely on the Internet. A competitor based in the Netherlands called DigiCash has a Web page with numerous articles on electronic money and fully functional demo of their technology. You can get some free cash from them and spend it at some of their allied vendors.
Digital cash is a compelling technology. Wired magazine calls it the “killer application for electronic networks which will change the global economy.” Handling and fraud costs for the paper money system are growing as digital color copiers and ATMs proliferate. Donald Gleason, President of the Smart Card Enterprise unit of Electronic Payment Services argues that “Cash is a nightmare. It costs money handlers in the U.S. alone approximately billion a year to move the stuff… Bills and coinage will increasingly be replaced by some sort of electronic equivalent.” Even a Citibank VP, Sholom Rosen, agrees that “There are going to be winners and losers, but everybody is going to play.”
The digital cash schemes use a blind digital signature and a central repository to protect against piracy and privacy violations. On the privacy issue, the techniques used have been mathematically proven to be protected against privacy violations. The bank cannot trace how the cash is being used or who is using it. Embedded in these schemes are powerful digital cryptography techniques which have recently been spread in the commercial domain (RSA Data Security is a leader in this field and will be speaking to the High Tech Club on January 19).
To protect against piracy requires some extra work. As soon as I have a digital bill on my Mac hard drive, I will want to make a copy, and I can. (Many companies have busted their picks trying to copy protect files from hackers. It will never work.). The difference is that I can only spend the bill once. The copy is worthless. This is possible because every bill has a unique encrypted identifier. In spending the bill, my computer checks with the centralized repository which verifies that my particular bill is still unspent. Once I spend it, it cannot be spent again. As with many electronic transactions today, the safety of the system depends on the integrity of a centralized computer, or what Dan Lynch calls “the big database in the sky.”
One of the most important limitations of the digital cash techniques is that they are tethered to a transaction between at least three parties — a buyer, seller and central repository. So, to use such a scheme to protect intellectual property, would require networked computers and “live” files that have to dial up and check in with the repository to be operational. There are many compelling applications for this, including voter registration, voting tabulation, and the registration of digital artwork originals.
When I asked Dan Lynch about the use of his technology for intellectual property protection, he agreed that the bits that now represent a bill could be used for any number of things, from medical records to photographs. A digital photograph could hide a digital signature in its low-order bits, and it would be imperceptible to the user. But those bits could be used with a registry of proper image owners, and could be used to prove misappropriation or sampling of the image by others.
Technology author Steven Levy has been researching cryptography for Wired magazine, and he responded to my e-mail questions with the reply “You are on the right track in thinking that crypto can preserve IP. I know of several attempts to forward plans to do so.” Digital cash may provide a “crypto-container” to preserve traditional notions of intellectual property.
The transaction tether limits the short-term applicability of these schemes for software copy protection. They won’t work on an isolated computer. This certainly would slow its adoption for mobile computers since the wireless networking infrastructure is so nascent. But with Windows ’95 bundling network connectivity, soon most computers will be network-ready — at least for the Microsoft network. And now that Bill Gates is acquiring Intuit, instead of dollar bills, we will have Bill dollars.
The transaction tether is also a logistical headache with current slow networks, which may hinder its adoption for mass-market applications. For example, if someone forwards a copyrighted e-mail, the recipient may have to have their computer do the repository check before they could see the text of the e-mail. E-mail is slow enough today, but in the near future, these techniques of verifying IP permissions and paying appropriate royalties in digital cash could be background processes on a preemptive multitasking computer (Windows ’95 or Mac OS System 8). The digital cash schemes are consistent with other trends in software distribution and development — specifically software rental and object-oriented “applets” with nested royalty payments. They are also consistent with the document-centric vision of Open Doc and OLE.
The user of the future would start working on their stationary. When it’s clear they are doing some text entry, the word processor would be downloaded and rented for its current usage. Digital pennies would trickle back to the people who wrote or inspired the various portions of the core program. As you use other software applets, such as a spell-checker, it would be downloaded as needed. By renting applets, or potentially finer-grained software objects, the licensing royalties would be automatically tabulated and exchanged, and software piracy would require heroic efforts. Intellectual property would become precisely that — property in a market economy, under lock by its “creator,” and Bill Gates’ 1975 lament over software piracy may now be addressed 20 years later.

——–end of paper———–

On further reflection, I must have been thinking of executable code (where the runtime requires a cloud connect to authenticate) and not passive media. Verification has been a pain, but perhaps it’s seamless in a web-services future. Cloud apps and digital cash depend on it, so why not the code itself.

I don’t see it as particularly useful for still images (but it could verify the official owner of any unique bundle of pixels, in the sense that you can "own" a sufficiently large number, but not the essence of a work of art or derivative works). Frankly, I’m not sure about non-interactive content in general, like pure video playback. "Fixing" software IP alone would be a big enough accomplishment.

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